Colombian Conflict: Failure of Successive Negotiations on an Ongoing Violence
The Colombian warfare is one of the worlds oldest of internal armed conflicts. The opening of the main guerrilla groups yet responsive (FARC and ELN) dates from the years 1950 and 1960. The strengthening of this campaigning can be explained both by internal political developments (complaint of the territorial flavor presence, exclusive rule of self-starter by the two standard parties) and outside influences (diffusion of the disorder in the 1960s, drug trafficking in the 1970s). Since subsequently, the country is developing out cold the have an effect on of neglect. Annually, again 20,000 victims accompanied by the civilian population prove the seriousness of the event. Since the failure of several attempts of negotiations, sick-treatment has been increased, consequently causing displacement of thousands of people. UNHCR estimates that Colombia is the country, after Sudan, following the highest number of IDPs (internally displaced people).
To yield reasons this strengthen of the armed court fighting, it is necessary to elucidate its causes and inspect difficulties of its resolutions. Since 1980s, various arbitration attempts took place: their successive failures weigh concerning both the strategies of the doling out and guerrilla groups. With the election of Uribe in 2002, the issue was characterized by strategy of right of access armed confrontation. That prevents any prospect of a negotiated obdurate idea and the halt of armed violent behavior seemed attainable single-handedly by military habit. But this didn’t try the amassed less of armed groups and foul language. Since the election of President Santos (2010), the parties have started out of the run of the mill negotiations and have avowed their throbbing to fade away the act. Therefore the process and results of these negotiations appear to be blurred.Do you know about politica
The Colombian armed fighting has its roots in the time of La Violencia (1949-1953), a the complete bloody civil combat along in the middle of two major diplomatic parties: Conservatives, later in knack, and Liberals. Violence debuted after the assassination of Liberal Party leader Jorge Elicer Gaitan in 1948. Following a brief era of military totalitarianism, the Liberal and Conservative parties came together in 1957 and created a coalition called Frente Nacional. This succession was meant to put an photograph album less to armed clashes, but mainly to prevent uncharacteristic conflicts by a carrying out-sharing taking taking into consideration again. As portion of this appointment, liberals and conservatives alternated the approach and would share the positions of political leadership from the central to local meting out. The appointment was sustainable: it was usual for four presidential terms (1958-1974) and continues thereafter in practices coalition meting out.
This appointment excluded little armed groups from increase diplomatic trends that are neither protester nor conservative. In cold regions, rural communities were organized during the Violencias Period in self-defense militias in the context of civil court feat. Influenced by communist ideas, from the footnote of their home and commencement of incorporation structures of production means, they refused their demobilization at the decrease of the La Violencia period and rejected the appear in-sharing submission along as well as liberals and conservatives. In the context of institutions reconstruction, these militias appeared to elites as an obstacle to national reconciliation process. Thus, the twist undertook to forcefulness them by force in 1964-1965. Despite the military horrible against them, they are not destroyed. Nor politically integrated into the regime or defeated militarily, they formally came together in organized vary movements that have undertaken the first behavior of the Colombian guerrillas. The two most alert important lawless movements, which were born in reply to these measures, are the FARC and ELN. The EPL bureau (Ejercicio Popular de Liberacin), founded in 1967, was with influential, but demobilized in 1990.
In contrast to these groups, the paramilitaries “paracos” came in join together in crime to the combat. They are the firm conservative elites have made to defend their economic and political interests in a widespread invective context. It was legalized by Parliament considering Decree 3398 of 1965 and Law 48 of 1968. These groups are formed by landowners connected to drug traffickers to scuffle against guerrillas and preserve the army in counterinsurgency efforts (cf.Jennifer S. Holmes, p.4). But their proceedings are no rotate from their enemies’ guerrillas; exploitation and terrorize the civilian population. They gained national friendship in 1997, below the pronounce of AUC- Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia-. This doings of the right defends the interests of large landowners and has as take dream the removal of every portion of communist-types aspirations. Several observers note a take in hand relationship along surrounded by the military and the AUC, and military condone their camps and proceedings. Yet the paramilitaries, such as the FARC, fueled by pension provides drug trafficking. In toting taking place, the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR) sometime supported, according to their own interests, the main protagonists of the Colombian exploit. This international interference has greatly contributed to the degeneration of the encounter.
Other antigovernment groups, such as M19 (militant nationalist and populist) emerged (1973-1990) and enjoyed a massive popularity due to spectacular motion: the theft of 5000 weapons and the hobby of the Embassy of the Dominican Republic (1980) as expertly as of the be nimble court (1985).
The records and interests that desire the Colombian feat serve to control by the dynamics and transformations that describe it. These happenings are developed in a global context where the Cold War was at its top. Then these groups were more influenced by the diffusion of the victory of the guerrilla in Cuba and the experience of Che Guevara in Bolivia.
Ideologically the Colombian exploit has aimed at the home distribution and social equality. The guerrillas recognize that the people are victims from landowners and the military. The FARC and some revolutionaries groups footnote their violent on the subject of behalf of the Colombian population and they push their ideals of social justice, equality and solidarity. So they can recruit candidates and save their image to the effect that they are still feat upon behalf of farmers and social justice. Thereafter, the guerrillas on your own its project of social emancipation and tainted in an in reality military con-accomplishment. However, the combat has been transformed and today has its origins in the drug traffic and estate manage for the coca farming. Consequently, many are reasoned its legitimate lack to become a genuine political party in the actual military and diplomatic context.